Chapter 5: Ethical Theories. Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics  Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence. Utilitarianism holds that whatâs ethical (or moral) is whatever maximizes total happiness while minimizing total pain. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much?  Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). The Advantages of the Utilitarian Philosophy in Business The utilitarian philosophy is more acceptable for the modern business as it can satisfy the needs of the stakeholders, despite the fact that either side may receive less profit. The action is described as the right one when it is beneficial for most people and has positive consequences. Utilitarianism is a teleological ethical theory based on the idea that an action is moral if it causes the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. A limitation of utilitarianism is that it tends to create a black-and-white construct of morality. Limited government is a political system in which legalized force is restricted through delegated and enumerated powers, such as The United States Constitution and Bill of Rights.  Jeanne Marie Laskas, Concussion (2015). Today, having a formalized code of business ethics is more important than ever. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. Over time more evidence has indicated that even mild concussions suffered by high school football players can cause serious consequences. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.” Repetitive head impacts (RHIs) can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion. Utilitarianism is a section or a part of the consequentialism theory. Sherron Watkinsâ ability to make judgment that Enronâs accounting standards were immoral created a rule utilitarianism approach with regards to the law and the concern with fairness; seeking to benefit the majority of people. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? An example of act utilitarianism could be when pharmaceutical companies release drugs that have been governmentally approved, but with known minor side effects because the drug is able to help more people than are bothered by the side effects.  Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. Advantages and Disadvantages of Utilitarian Ethics in Business.  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). Some of the questions they wrestled with include: What constitutes "the greatest amount of good"? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. Utilitarianism is a specific type of consequentialism that focuses on the greatest good for the greatest number.  Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions, but neuroscientist Julie Stamm says: “No helmet will ever be concussion-proof, because the brain still moves inside the skull. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. Do you agree?  Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). Discuss your reasoning. In this Wireless Philosophy video, Julia Markovits (Cornell University) gives an introduction to the moral theory of utilitarianism. Pleasure, or happiness, is the only thing that has intrinsic value. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012).  Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). The term may also refer to pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from being somewhere. There is no official state religion but the Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population. Applying Utilitarianism in Business.  Thomas L. Schwenk, Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(4): 599-605 92007)(but finding that when coupled with difficult with pain, problems with sleep and social relations often followed). Why or why not. 3. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. In economics, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive fromconsuming a product or service. If the outcome leads to the greatest good (or the least harm) for the greatest number of people, then it is assumed the end justifies the means. For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship. Do you think these critiques are counterbalanced by the fact that the riches that are often lavished upon NFL players go disproportionately to African-Americans as well? It is a form of consequentialism. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. Myanmar is a small southeast Asian country that contains about 130 diverse ethnic groups recognized by the government. Explain. The Kachin Independence Army, which includes ethnic minorities who live in the northern Kachin and surrounding regions of Myanmar, has been in armed conflict with the Myanmar government for the restoration of minority ethnic groups’ rights. A study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Do these choices remind you of the COVID-19 pandemic when governments, in deciding whether to shut down society and later when to reopen it, had to weigh lives vs. livelihoods? https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game. This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation.  Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017); Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? However, if you choose to do something morally wrong—even if legal—then your happiness and that of your colleagues, will decrease. Actions are right if they promote happiness, and wrong if they promote unhappiness. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. Is Getting Soft. Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). Utilitarianism is a moral theory, which works as a form of consequentialism helps individuals to assess whether an action is good or bad. How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions? Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). a.  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. A policy issue?  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.. 1685 Words7 Pages. In act utilitarianism any action is permissible given that it increases pleasure for the greatest number of people and a successful business does exactly this. Examples of Utilitarian Ethics One example of utilitarianism in business is the practice of having tiered pricing for a product or service to different types of customers. In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them.  Although concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening. " Utilitarianism and business ethics, " in R. E. Frederick, eds, A Companion to Business Ethics.  Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). What facts would you weigh in making the decision?  Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. Reducing tackling in practices has reduced overall concussion numbers among high school players, even though the number of concussions in games has risen slightly. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. Utilitarianism holds that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce sadness, or the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the actor but that of everyone affected by it. In economics, we can replace the terms âsatisfaction and pleasureâ with âvalue for money.â Economists use utility to measure pleasure or happiness and how it relates to the decisions we make. Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football? Consumers are looking for companies that they can trust, and employees work better when there is a solid model of ethics in place. Is this ever a consideration that buyers should take into account? Where there are disadvantaged groups who suffer income inequality or other negative consequences because of a utilitarian-based policy or action, most politicians would try to find a remedy. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. A 2016 study found no elevated risk of suicide in a population of players with at least five years in the league. Tom would do this because he is promoting his well being above everyone elseâs (QUT, 2011).  Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2.  Janine Armstrong, NFL Concussion Protocol Explained: How Does It Work?, Sportcasting, Oct. 13, 2019, at https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/. Dr. Omalu identified abnormal clumps of the protein tau in Webster’s brain, which he believed to be evidence of CTE. Utilitarian ethics says, in general, that the most ethical course of action is the one that provides the greatest benefit to the most people. Business Law and Ethics Case Study. 2.  Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Bry’s answer is that it’s not the players who are immoral, it is the fans who are comparable to Romans sitting in the Colosseum watching lions devour Christians. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. ", John Stuart Mill had many years to absorb and reflect on Jeremy Bentham's thoughts on utilitarianism by the time he published his own work, Utilitarianism, in 1863. 30 videos - one minute each - relate recent scandals in the news and give ethical insights. This is one of the limitations of utilitarianism. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. What can scientists considering the morality of trading in Myanmar amber learn from the debate over “conflict minerals” in Africa? Many recent studies point to how dangerous football is to players’ long-term brain health. Utilitarianism is a tradition of ethical philosophy that is associated with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, two late 18th- and 19th-century British philosophers, economists, and political thinkers. BUSINESS ETHICS :: Utilitarianism â¢ Introduction â¢ Jeremy Bentham â¢ Theory of Utility â¢ Types of Utilitarianism â¢ Some Criticisms â¢ Moral Dilemma Introduction Over the course of the next two lectures we will be looking at two of the most politically and philosophically significant â¦ Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.” No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. What moral principles would you take into account? As with Benthamâs formulation, utilitarianism in business ethics is primarily concerned with outcomes rather than processes. In general terms, itâs easy to understand the idea that we should all act to increase the general welfare.  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? If the outcome leads to the greatest good (or the least harm) for the greatest number of people, then it is assumed the end justifies the means. A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12. As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. It addresses the meaning of ethical terms such as right, duty, obligation, justification, morality, responsibility. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). The word total is important here: if you act ethically according to utilitarianism, youâre not maximizing yourhappiness, but the total happiness of the whole human race.  Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. Is this an ethical issue? Over two regular seasons (2012-2014), NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions. The NFL and universities, among others, urge no rash actions until there is more concrete proof of a causal link between concussions and adverse health outcomes. Specifically, decisâ¦  Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2.  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). Thus, they are disproportionately exposed to concussions and other injuries that arise from the game. Not every business decision can be a win-win and in these circumstances Utilitarianism looks to the greater good for the business e.g.  Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017). â¢ Analysis of the language, concepts and methods of resoning in ethics.  Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Its prevalence is unknown, and the neuropathological diagnostic criteria are no more than preliminary. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”.  Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). If option A will create more happiness (or less misery) overall than option â¦ 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Five million cribs had been sold. https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, Sokol, Joshua, “Troubled Treasure,” Science, May 23, 2019. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, Thiha, “Myanmar’s New Gold Mine is Dinosaur Amber, July 11, 2018. https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, Xing, Linda et al., “A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber,” Current Biology, 26: 24, pl. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. It has been suggested at both the NFL and collegiate level that team physicians are faced with conflicting loyalties. Utilitarianism (pronounced yoo-TILL-ih-TARE-ee-en-ism) is one of the main schools of thought in modern ethics (also known as moral philosophy). However, because we cannot predict the future, it’s difficult to know with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad. feeling worried and guilty and this would ease his mind. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles. Russell, The Value of Dangerous Sport, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32: 1-19 (2005). And for the same reason, a helmet alone will not prevent CTE.” Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions. It is completely fine to exploit workers.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. After you identify your options for action, you ask who will benefit and who will be harmed by each. 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